Emil Kraepelin (February 15, 1856–October 7, 1926) was a German psychiatrist. He is seen as being the founder of modern scientific psychiatry, psychopharmacology and psychiatric genetics according to the eminent psychologist H. J. Eysenck in his Encyclopedia of Psychology. Kraepelin believed that psychiatric diseases are mainly caused by biological and genetic disorders. His psychiatric theories dominated the field of psychiatry at the beginning of the twentieth century, and have again, in their essence, since its end. Kraepelin opposed the approach of Sigmund Freud who regarded and treated psychiatric disorders as caused by psychological factors.
Rapid cycling, defined as having four or more episodes per year, is found in a significant fraction of patients with bipolar disorder. It has been associated with greater disability or a worse prognosis, due to the confusing changeability and difficulty in establishing a stable state. Rapid cycling can be induced or made worse by antidepressants, unless there is adjunctive treatment with a mood stabilizer.
Hypomania is generally a less extreme state than mania, and people in the hypomanic phase generally experience less of the symptoms of mania than those in a full-blown manic episode. During an episode of Hypomania one might feel an uncontrollable impulse to laugh at things he or she does not normally find funny. The duration is usually also shorter than in mania. This is often a very 'artistic' state of the disorder, where there is a flight of ideas, extremely clever thinking, and an increase in energy.
Dementia praecox ("premature dementia") is a term first used in 1891 in this Latin form by Arnold Pick (1851-1924), a professor of psychiatry at the German branch of Charles University in Prague. His brief clinical report described the case of a person with a psychotic disorder resembling hebephrenia (see below). It was popularized by German psychiatrist Emil Kraepelin (1856-1926) in 1896 in his first detailed description of a condition that would eventually be reframed and relabeled as schizophrenia. It refers to a chronic, deteriorating psychotic disorder characterized by rapid cognitive disintegration, usually beginning in the late teens or early adulthood.
Manic Depression may refer to: